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We assessed whether associations among family relationships, parenting stress, and child outcomes were different in the two household types.

Parental and child characteristics were matched for 95 female same-sex parent and 95 different-sex parent households with children 6—17 years old. One parent per household was interviewed by telephone.

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Multivariate analyses of variance and multiple linear regressions were conducted. No differences were observed between household types on family relationships or any child outcomes. No significant interactions between household type and family relationships, or household type and parenting stress, were found for any child outcomes.

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Children with female same-sex parents and different-sex parents demonstrated no differences in outcomes, despite female same-sex parents reporting more parenting stress. Future studies may reveal the sources of this parenting stress. A substantial body of research has been conducted on same-sex parent families.

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Using nationally representative data from the —5 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wainright conducted the first study in which matched groups of adolescents with same- and different-sex parents were compared.

The findings revealed that regardless of family type, adolescents were functioning well and those who were closer to their parents had better school outcomes. Census data, Rosenfeld reported that residentially stable children of same-sex and different-sex parents showed comparable progress through school.

Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, when family transitions were taken into account, Potter found no significant differences in academic achievement between children of same-sex parent and different-sex parent families.

For families with children between 6 and 17 years old, the NSCH also contained questions about family relationships, parenting stress, and child outcomes 17 that made it possible to assess different predictors and outcomes than were used in Wainright and other matching studies, 81112 and thus determine whether the findings would be consistent. As such, the NSCH dataset provided a unique opportunity to investigate the following questions: Of thequalifying households, 95, respondents If the household contained multiple children under 18 years old, one was randomly selected to be the sample child SC for the survey.

Same-sex parent households containing 6—year-old children were identified as those in which the respondent and co-habiting partner had the same gender, and both identified as parents of the College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united. Matching was used to minimize any potential confounding effect 20 on the College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united between growing up in a same-sex parent household and family relationships, parenting stress, child general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, and learning behavior.

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For 95 of the College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united continuously coupled female same-sex parent households it was possible to conduct one-to-one matching i. Because the NSCH confidentiality policy prohibits analyzing or reporting on cell sizes smaller than five, information is not available about the three same-sex parent households that could not be matched on all eight characteristics. Restricted variables included questions that were used to identify same-sex and different-sex parent households, those indicating whether the participating parent and SC were born in the U.

Table 1 provides the demographic characteristics of the matched sample. The parents were, on average, 48 years old. Most were high school graduates, had been born in the U.

A single item assessed the parent-child relationship: The average score on three items was used to assess the stress of parenting the SC: One item was used to assess health status: To investigate associations among family relationships, parenting stress, and each child outcome variable, and to assess whether these relations differed by household type, multiple linear regression analyses were conducted.

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Continuously scaled predictor variables were mean-centered prior to forming interaction terms, and dichotomous predictors were dummy-coded. Family Relationships and Parenting Stress: Different-sex Parent versus Same-sex Parent Households. Post hoc power analyses. A series of multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between the predictors family relationships and parenting stress, and whether these relationships differed across household type.

These regression analyses showed a significant R 2 for all child outcome variables see Table 4. Moreover, children experienced fewer emotional difficulties when the parents reported a more positive relationship with one another, a more positive relationship with the child, and lower levels of parenting stress. Coping behavior and learning behavior were positively associated with parent-child relationship and negatively with parenting stress.

Finally, the quality of parent-child relationship emerged as the sole predictor of both coping behavior and learning behavior, such that more positive relationships were associated with more effective coping and learning behavior. None of the interactions included in the equations were significant for any child outcomes see Table 4meaning that the significant associations among family relationships, parenting stress, and child outcomes did not significantly differ across same-sex and different-sex parent households.

With the exception of parenting stress, no significant differences were found between the two household types on family relationships and child outcomes.

Despite higher levels of parenting stress for same-sex parents, their offspring did not differ in general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, or learning behavior when compared to the offspring of different-sex parents.

This suggests that other factors may have mitigated the negative effects of parenting College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united on child outcomes. It should be noted that the effect size for differences in parenting stress College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united same- and different-sex parents in the current study was modest.

The findings on the child outcomes are in line with the results of other population-based studies 811 — 13 comparing children with same-sex and different-sex parents that, like the present investigation, either matched the two groups 81112 or accounted for family stability.

National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study NLLFS found that adolescents reared by lesbian mothers demonstrated more competencies and fewer behavioral problems than the normative sample of same-age youth, 4 and the Dutch Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study that adolescent offspring of lesbian mothers had higher self-esteem than peers in different-sex parent families. The NSCH 17 did not collect information about the source of the sperm used for conceiving the children of same-sex mothers.

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It is conceivable that there might be differences in family relationships, parenting stress, or child outcomes associated with whether the sperm donor was known i. Yet, no differences in psychological adjustment or quality of life were found when year-old NLLFS adolescents with known and unknown donors were compared. By the time the NLLFS offspring had reached the age of 10 comparable to the mean age of children in the current studyno significant differences were found in relationship duration when separated NLLFS mothers were compared to their own heterosexual sisters who were divorced and also parents.

In addition, there are also limitations. First, face-to-face interviews with multiple sources would have provided more comprehensive family assessments.

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Second, the small number of male same-sex co-parents in the NSCH precluded our including them in the analysis.

Future studies that collect larger sample sizes will allow more comprehensive analytic techniques e. A third limitation was that income data were missing for nearly all continuously coupled same-sex co-parents in the NSCH; thus, parental education, which is highly correlated with income, 29 was the principal measure of SES.

Further, as is often the case in large-scale surveys, 30 most studied topics could only be assessed through single-item NSCH questions that were narrowly construed. In addition, the NSCH contained no questions about the sexual orientation of the respondent. A limitation of population-based surveys in general is that they yield extremely small numbers of non-heterosexual individuals, 31 often because sexual orientation questions are not asked.

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Our analyses reveal that even though female same-sex parents acknowledge more parenting stress, their children demonstrate no differences in general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, and learning behavior from children reared in different-sex parent households. These findings are relevant to clinicians, public policy analysts, litigators, and legislators who are consulted on matters pertaining to same-sex parent families.

Gary Gates for feedback on the manuscript; Dr. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Dev Behav Pediatr. Author manuscript; available in PMC Dec L van Rijn-van Gelderen 1.


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